Landscape design benefits the environment
To integrate Munich Airport into its environment in the best possible way, FMG set about – from the very outset – creating structures that would ecologically upgrade the extensive surrounding area in the Erdinger and Freisinger Moos and link it together. In line with applicable green space planning, a three-zone area was created: Zone I comprises the airport grounds, including the take-off and landing runway system, buildings and roads. Zone II includes the wooded green belt with structural diversity around the airport site and Zone III the ecological compensation measures.
Zone I: Airport premises with runway system, buildings, and roads
Green areas with currently around 5,000 planted trees make up almost two thirds of the airport premises. Specialist care and maintenance has led to a rich variety of vegetation and ecologically valuable habitats especially for rare meadow breeders, particularly inside the security fence, on the green areas between the runways and their infrastructure facilities.
Zone II: Wooded green belt with structural diversity around the airport premises
With its woods, drainage channels, and meadows, this area around the edge of the airport acts as sound protection and as a buffer for settlements and agriculture. For instance, the northern receiving ditch with its near-natural designed course, is home to plants that are worthy of protection such as the pasqueflower, ox-eye, perennial flax, and campanula. On the list of particularly protected species are the marsh gladiolus and fen pondweed.
Zone III: Ecological compensation measures
FMG has meanwhile planned and created approximately 520 hectares of compensation areas. The aim is to offset the interventions in the natural landscape caused by the building projects. The responsible certification bodies have confirmed that sufficient areas have been cultivated and that these are looked after properly. These compensation areas for conservation, with their structural diversity and rich variety of vegetation, make an important contribution to biodiversity in the region. They are distributed in the agricultural land and provide shelter and stepping stones in the biotope network. They are neither fertilized nor treated with pesticides.
Successful balancing of breeding sites
FMG has been implementing coherence and species protection measures on an area of approximately 79 hectares since fall 2017 as part of the East Infrastructure Project. These measures are intended to compensate for any territorial losses, including those for the curlew, the lapwing, and many other protected bird species. The concurrent mapping activities have documented the success: the number of breeding sites of almost all bird species already exceeds the required amount. The completion of these areas was confirmed in 2021 with the approval of the higher nature conservation authority, ensuring adapted maintenance for the future. The monitoring of this success will continue until the final success of the measure has been achieved.
Bird sanctuary on airport premises
Munich Airport is an inherent part of the 4,525 hectare «Nördliches Erdinger Moos» European bird sanctuary, which is home to 40 species of bird, some highly endangered. With its numerous curlew and lapwing breeding territories on the 666 hectares of meadows surrounding the runways, it represents one of the most important meadow breeding areas in Bavaria. Furthermore, in conjunction with the compensatory and replacement areas outside the airport premises, the airport serves as a refuge for rare plant species, reptiles, and insects.